Goniometers are used to measure the total amount of available motion at a specific joint and can be used to measure both active and passive range of motion. Goniometers are produced in a variety of sizes and shapes and are usually constructed of either plastic or metal. The two most common types of instruments used to measure joint angles are the bubble inclinometer and the traditional goniometer.
- Bubble goniometer. The bubble goniometer, which has a 360° rotating dial and scale with fluid indicator can be used for flexion and extension; abduction and adduction; and rotation in the neck, shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, ankle, and the spine.
- Traditional goniometer. The traditional goniometer, which can be used for flexion and extension; abduction and adduction; and rotation in the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle, consists of three parts.